A Guide to Adult ADHD: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment


ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a related brain development disorder characterized by ongoing problems with inattention, impulsivity, and hyperness.

Around 4-5% of grown-ups have ADHD, which causes problems with focus, organization, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, impacting work, relationships, and well-being.

This complete guide covers the symptoms, causes, diagnosis process and research-backed treatments for adult ADHD. It also provides tips for managing challenges through organization strategies, focus tools, relationship advice and coping methods.

What is ADHD in Adults?

ADHD is a neurological disorder involving ongoing patterns of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. While the typical start is in childhood, at least 60% of children with ADHD keep having significant symptoms as adults.

Adult ADHD can include these core symptoms:

  • Inattention – trouble staying focused and attentive, mind wandering
  • Lack of order – struggle with planning, ranking by importance, time management
  • Impulsiveness – rushing into actions without thinking, interrupting speech
  • Hyperactivity – restlessness, excessive talking, feeling “on the go”

While similar to childhood ADHD, the symptoms manifest differently in adults. Restlessness tends to become less visible, while inattention, disorganization and impulsiveness stay the same or get worse. This can lead to unstable work history, money struggles, relationship issues and low self-esteem.

But effective treatment exists and can dramatically improve functioning and satisfaction in all areas of life.

What Causes ADHD in Adults?

Researchers are still investigating the exact causes, but both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the onset of ADHD:

  • Family History – ADHD runs in families, with certain genes linked to increased risk.
  • Brain Development – Differences in development and activity of the prefrontal cortex likely play a role.
  • Brain Chemicals – Imbalance or deficiencies in dopamine and norepinephrine affect thinking and attention control.
  • Prenatal & Childhood Exposures – Exposure to toxins, low birth weight, brain trauma or maternal smoking/drinking may increase risk.

ADHD makes it difficult for people to control attention, impulses, thoughts, tasks, and emotions due to brain differences.

However, understanding the biological factors underlying ADHD empowers adults to pursue effective science-based treatment.

ADHD in adults: Symptoms

ADHD symptoms can manifest differently in adults. Some common signs:

  • Poor focus and concentration – frequent mind wandering
  • Trouble starting or finishing tasks and following multi-step procedures
  • Ongoing disorganization and forgetfulness
  • Fidgeting, restlessness or excessive talking
  • Chronic lateness
  • Impulsive and risky behaviors
  • Problems keeping a stable job
  • Relationship conflicts resulting from inattention or impulsiveness
  • Low frustration tolerance and temper issues
  • Anxiety, worry and nervousness
  • Low motivation and self-esteem

Symptoms must cause major problems in everyday activities over a long period. Those with ongoing struggles should seek professional evaluation for ADHD.

Getting an Adult ADHD Diagnosis

Diagnosis of ADHD includes assessing symptoms from childhood, ruling out other conditions, interviewing about current problems, and doing cognitive/behavioral tests.

Professionals often miss diagnosing ADHD in adults, which makes getting properly diagnosed challenging but crucial. Here are some tips for going through the assessment process:

  • Seek out a mental health professional experienced specifically in adult ADHD screening.
  • Provide background history going back to childhood ADHD symptoms and impairment. School records can help support history.
  • Go through a comprehensive clinical interview, symptom scales, brain tests and potentially interviews with loved ones.
  • Ensure testing identifies any co-occurring conditions like anxiety, depression or learning disabilities. Professionals need to treat these conditions as well.
  • If you meet criteria, expect to receive an official ADHD diagnosis including a specifier like “mostly inattentive presentation”.
  • Remember diagnosis is just the first step – finding appropriate treatment and resources are most important.

Comorbidity in Adult ADHD

Comorbidity refers to having two or more disorders at the same time. Adult ADHD commonly co-occurs with:

  • Anxiety disorders – too much worry/fear, panic attacks, phobias.
  • Mood disorders – mainly depression which causes sadness, low energy, isolation, sleep issues.
  • Substance abuse disorders – using alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, or other drugs too much.
  • Other mental health conditions like OCD, bipolar disorder, personality disorders may be present.

Additionally, many people with ADHD have co-existing learning disabilities which can make organization, planning and focus harder.

Treating ADHD alone is often not enough – other disorders also need proper treatment through coordinated specialized care for the best outcomes.

Effective Treatments for Managing Adult ADHD


While there is no cure for adult ADHD, using research-backed treatment approaches can effectively minimize symptoms and improve daily functioning:


Prescribing stimulant or non-stimulant medications is usually the first-line treatment approach. Types include:

  • Stimulants like Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse – increase dopamine and norepinephrine activity which improves concentration and focus.
  • Non-stimulants like Strattera, Intuniv – regulate brain chemicals differently. If stimulants are ineffective or produce unbearable side effects, non-stimulants may be the preferred treatment option.

An experienced doctor should carefully evaluate medication effects, dosing, risks and side effects. Ongoing monitoring is important.

Psychological Counseling

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps identify and change unhelpful thinking and behavior patterns that make ADHD worse. Teaches practical coping skills too.

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) focuses on mindfulness, accepting thoughts/feelings, and taking value-based action. Helps emotional control issues common in ADHD.

ADHD Coaching & Education

Coaches provide accountability, organization systems, structure and productivity tools tailored to the person. Education teaches skills for taking control of symptoms.

Lifestyle Changes

Exercise, enough sleep, healthy diet, stress management and social connection all support brain health and thinking. Routines and systems bring stability.

Experts recommend integrating medication, therapy, coaching, lifestyle changes, education and support systems for best improvement in functioning, happiness and life quality.

Adult ADHD and Relationships

ADHD symptoms strain relationships, but treatment, improved communication, counseling, and compassion can greatly improve them.

Some common issues include:

  • Interrupting a lot or not listening fully
  • Forgetting events, commitments or important details about partner
  • Being late and poor time management
  • Leaving messes around shared living space
  • Not finishing tasks
  • Appearing bored or restless during quality time
  • Temper outbursts
  • Impulsive behaviors like overspending
  • Partners feeling unseen and unheard

The good news is treatment combined with deliberately working on the relationship can greatly reduce discord.

To effectively manage a relationship, it is crucial to follow medication instructions and engage in emotional therapy.

Additionally, staying organized, communicating openly, making plans, and understanding each other’s needs and boundaries are also important strategies. Counseling is often very helpful.

Tips for Managing Adult ADHD

Organization systems, healthy habits, and focus strategies reduce struggles for adults with ADHD like disorganization, forgetfulness, and inattention. Useful tips include:

  • Use planners, calendars and phone alerts to remember important activities.
  • Keep items neatly in set places and maintain consistent routines to avoid losing things.
  • Minimize clutter and simplify spaces to improve concentration.
  • Make to-do lists, leave reminder notes and use whiteboards to track tasks.
  • Avoid multitasking which typically lowers productivity – focus on one activity at a time.
  • Take regular short breaks when doing intensive work to recharge mental focus.
  • Improve time management skills – allow extra time to get ready and commute.
  • Exercise most days which boosts mental clarity.
  • Identify peak productive hours when focusing is easier and do demanding work then.

Seeking treatment, being patient with yourself, and consistently applying coping strategies leads to better management, confidence and life outlook over time.

Finding Motivation with Adult ADHD

Many adults with ADHD struggle with motivation and follow-through. ADHD symptoms like poor concentration, distraction, boredom with routine, and fearing failure reduce motivation. Useful strategies to increase motivation include:

  • Taking medication and pursuing therapy to better control symptoms.
  • Breaking large tasks down into very small, specific, achievable steps.
  • Scheduling tasks during naturally higher energy and focus times.
  • Using accountability partners, coaches, or goal-tracking systems.
  • Rewarding yourself after completing each small task.
  • Including more variety and active learning into tasks.
  • Removing distractions before starting important activities.
  • Displaying inspiring images and words related to goals.
  • Avoiding self-criticism and staying positive when motivation is low.

Experiment to find optimal inspiration strategies. Small consistent actions lead to progress. Enlist support from others as needed.

Coping with Emotional Instability

Intense mood swings, annoyance, and quick temper are common challenges for adults with ADHD stemming from impulsiveness and mental exhaustion. Useful coping strategies include:

  • Identifying personal ADHD triggers prone to set off emotional reactions.
  • Using calming practices when feeling irritable – alone time, deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation.
  • Reducing major stressors and prioritizing sleep, nutrition, social connection.
  • Communicating feelings honestly – asking loved ones for support when overwhelmed.
  • Practicing mindfulness and pausing before responding to frustration.
  • Learning to express feelings and needs calmly. Avoid reactive outbursts.
  • Using therapy and medication to improve emotional control.
  • Temporarily removing yourself from challenging situations until feeling regulated.
  • Finding healthy outlets like journaling, arts, humor, or exercise to process emotions.

With practice, emotional regulation skills improve. Don’t hesitate to get professional support – therapists and coaches are very helpful with these issues.

Adult ADHD is challenging but very manageable. Seeking education, following comprehensive treatment plans, and making lifestyle changes greatly improve functioning and satisfaction.

Finding optimal individualized strategies takes effort and time upfront but leads to increased performance and happiness across all areas of life. Consistency, self-compassion and enlisting support when needed are key.

The future looks bright for adults who take control of their ADHD.

There are effective solutions for managing your ADHD symptoms. You can take control and start thriving.

Dr. Benejam provides science-based treatments including cognitive behavioral therapy, emotion regulation skills training and ADHD coaching.

He partners with clients to develop customized strategies to improve focus, organization, time management and productivity.

Dr. Benejam will kindly guide you on your journey to thriving with adult ADHD.

Call (561) 376-9699 / (305) 981-6434 to schedule a consultation with Dr. Benejam and start reclaiming your life.



Call NOW Dr. Benejam
and schedule your appointment
to get a Psychological Evaluation!



Call NOW Dr. Benejam
and schedule your appointment
to get a Psychological Evaluation!



Call NOW Dr. Benejam
and schedule your appointment
to get a Psychological Evaluation!